Carolina buckthorn
Rhamus caroliniana
(formerly Frangula caroliniana)
  • LEAVES: alternate, simple, deciduous; elliptic-oblong; 3-5”; strongly veined; lateral veins parallel, turn upward at margins (arcuate venation); margins finely toothed; pubescent along veins lower surface
  • FLOWER: small 1/4”, green to yellow, in leaf axils; early summer
  • FRUIT: globose, 1/3 to 1/2” diameter; three lobed; drupe; red in summer, black when mature
  • TWIGS:
  • BARK:
  • FORM: small tree, 30-40 ft, 6-8”
  • HABITAT: moist sites
  • WETLAND DESIGNATION: Facultative Upland (FACU): Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Plain Region
  • RANGE: south central US
  • USES: ornamental; birds eat seeds
  • Best Recognition Features:
    1. elliptic, strongly veined
    2. lateral veins turn upward at margin

    NOTES: Other genera with arcuate venation include Cornus (the dogwoods) and Itea (Virginiawillow)